The Akhal Teke breed that is not fixed
Russians give much room for genetic research to improve the study of lines. These have paramount importance for them in breeding. They are based on the work to achieve the crossings, to determine which standard the line may make projections and above all with that.
Rigor primarily follows a strict Stud Book:
The breeding of Akhal Teke is subject to the same strict rules as other races. The specialists who are responsible for races (Russian and international) sit at the Russian Institute of Horse located Riasan.
An important place is given to genetics, it is used for breed improvement, determining the parameters that will be used over time to rank and evaluate each and every product.
The results are regularly checked, foals are rated according to specific criteria, it allows one hand to possibly correct errors and secondly following the consistent quality of products, to provide a line to a standard and this can be 10 to 20 years after the death of the horse, or estimate that the line can not continue.
So in September 1997 taken decisions that go in this direction and we shall see when studying lines.
The evaluation of horses is followed from birth. Generally we take five measurements:
Height at the withers
Depth of chest
Length of body from point of shoulder to the tip of the ischium
Tour the barrel
In the Stud Book, we shall include the measurements taken at 2 years and any race results.
A two and a half years, horses are placed in the race. Previously they are monitored for their performance: length of the step, the trot. We note each stage, and their jumping ability and performances. For Russians, racetracks are considered primarily as work places for the rating and the quality of the horse.
It will be noted at the sight of the table (Annex 2) the results of the Akhal Teke bine inferiors to those of Thoroughbred are equal to those of the Arab. According to a study by Barmincev in 1979, it never says no Akhal Teke was eliminated in the selection for inadequate performance.
These criteria have not always been the same. They changed several times and have taken a decisive turn at the beginning of the century when farming went under cover of the Ministry of Agriculture and then at the opening to European countries in the 1960s.
The origin criteria:
It is difficult to say today what the criteria Teke nomads but making a study and watching the horses called "Teke of the old type" we note evidences that make even today they are raised in the same manner and for the same purpose.
The nomads needed horses can withstand hot climates and long distances. These criteria are found today in livestock breeds for endurance.
The performances were the most important criteria, horses were trained for raids. They had to be good sprinters in the attacks but it was above all they are able to travel long distances as to each way and, remaining fresh and ready for a new attack.
Comfort and maneuverability were the second criterion because it was necessary to remain on horseback several days. Moreover, we must know the warriors rose as stallions. It was therefore necessary that the horses keep them very quiet and have a docile nature. It is important to note that these days males are still left whole ...
Which was absolutely secondary, it was the color of the dress. Certainly the preference was to dresses with metallic reflections because they sent back the sunshine and dazzled during the attacks. Just as they liked blue eyes because blue is the color that pushes the "eye of the devil." Left to choose, nomads preferred a horse to common aesthetic but good warrior rather than a horse of a beautiful color but little bold. Teke This leads to the former type with a moderate conformation ideal for endurance: 1.50 to 1.55 m, narrow hindquarters, long, thin muscles, comfortable gaits and docile character.
The criteria from the beginning of the century:
The criteria changed after the conquest of Turkmenistan by the Russians. The Tekes were considered a war machine: courageous, determined, aggressive and experienced on the battle fields.
It was therefore decided to separate the tribes of their horses. Thus, they became property of the Russian state and were raised in state farms.
Then it was decided to select horses for racing and cross them with other breeds. This change was from the perspective geneticists and biologists the most complex to implement.
Indeed, the nature of the genetic potential of a very specific to each race. The contribution of external elements or any other type of workout will change it.
The composition of the muscle mass of the Akhal Teke is important in long fiber so it is predestined course to endurance racing and what does not predispose to acceleration over short distances or in disciplines that require horses including muscle mass comprises short fibers.
This is well known scientists who focus their research on the differences between PS and other English racehorse races.
In fact, breeding schedules were modified based on a selection similar to that of PS English.
BOINOU was the typical example for breeding. His long and slender conformation, fine head were exotic enough to attract the eye ... It was the "Akhal Teke" and the following generations have been judged on its actions.
The back and long necks were actually mistakes in the old type of horse, nomads would never have accepted what one was at home and then at BOINOU GELISHIKLI for their war horses.
Another criterion was determined: the size. It corresponded to the mood of the time who preferred large horses with high speeds.
Breeding plans were developed over a 10 year period during which the selection was made on the size, rating and type (the reference being BOINOU horse).
They arrived well to have horses of 1.60m and sometimes even up to 1,70m.
The current criteria:
The turn was taken after the success of an Akhal Teke in classic competitions. We speak of course of ABSENT Olympic dressage champion in 1960 and 1964 and for the first time at the age of 8 years.
At the time it was unthinkable to present an Akhal Teke in classic dressage competition and certainly we do not even talking about the Olympics but ABSENT was built as a sport horse and his appearance was such that he could go unnoticed face other European horses. For purists will say it was a horse "atypical".
Attention has focused on the race and demand began to grow. Breeders therefore orientèrent to sport horses whose criteria are closest possible to the horses that we used to see on the show grounds.
Other examples, the ESPADRON stallion who won a silver medal in the Moscow OG obstacle and Anglo Teke CHAN, Dressage Horse Michael KLIMKE.
Thus the Akhal Teke took a very close look of Trakehner or light Hanoverians with a fine nose, eyes "slanted" and pleasant colors. With the onset of the breeding line GELISHIKLI the rules is confirmed established for the type sport: the long ends, an elongated back and an even longer neck. This fine horse and was a long conformation recalling BOINOU.
Thus, the horse GELISHIKLI became fashionable in farms. He had his own line that exploded in the 1980s from 49 hp to 386 in 1992. This represents the largest increase to the detriment of other lineages (See Appendix 8).
This fashion conquered Turkmen breeding. This leads to so-called modern lines horses typical example was Kambar.
Today in Russia, the scoring criteria seem to be favorable to typed horses. When PYATOGORSK rally in September 1998, Tatiana RIABOVA was pleased that the winning horses yesterday were very typical and that these horses won races the next day.
Another question arises for horses bred in Europe. Indeed, the lines shown are limited and predominantly those having similar conformations European horses. Therefore, horses used for breeding the breed or cross are limited. A direct consequence is the disappearance of some lines.
To conclude this section, it must be mentioned the famous raid Ashgabat - MOSCOW established to demonstrate the value of livestock Akhal Teke. In 1935, the two founders and lineage that were ARAB AK SAKAL there participated at the age of just 5 years. The distance covered was 4800 km in 84 days and, not forgetting the Karakum desert crossing in 3 days without drinking.
At the urging of geldi KERISOV and MARIA TCHERKESSOVA if raid was renewed in 1988 and so we saw pass Teke in the villages of their origins which had not done since the annexation of Turkmenistan by the Russians.
Stud Book Presentation closed called Volume III:
Before the conquest of Turkmenistan in Russia, there was only oral Stud Book for the breed. After that, Russian experts in livestock that were BELEGONOV and Gorelov, brought together all the existing information on this farm and have it transcribed in writing: it was the first race of the Stud Book.
In 1932, it was decided that the race was to remain pure and therefore only horses whose parents already registered as purebred in the Stud Book and born of registered parents would also now allowed to be registered in the Stud Book.
Any horse with blood other qu'Akhal Teke was exlcu after 1932.
Under the Soviet regime, Studs books were revised and the 5th and 7th published editions. During the preparation of Volume VII, in 1981, two important decisions were taken by the responsible Tatiana RIABOVA Alexander Klimuk Vladimir SCHAMBORANT and Maria TCHERKESSOVA:
The Stud Book will be permanently closed
A number of horses were excluded considered unclean
Horses whose parents did not conform to the previous points were excluded. Stud Book a half-blood was started and all of them were enrolled. At the same time, we instituted a blood test to verify the origins of horses.
The first Stud Book was published in 1941 by the Institute of Uzbekistan, in accordance with the decisions taken in 1932. In the first part is a historical fact of race and a description you can find under "Its morphology." Various tables included in the following volumes including:
measures and averages according to whether male or mares
statistics on the composition of the herd following the lines.
Thereafter included a table for periods of 4 years on the ability to reproduce mares and a ranking according to the colors of the dresses. Finally, the fact is detailed history of each line accompanied by the pedigree of the founder. Come to al the following detail of the horses.
Horses are listed in alphabetical order with an order number. First stallions and mares. That is why this issue before the name of each ancestor found on horses papers: El 100 is the 100th registered horse and 0 indicates that the horse is part of the second part.
In the Premier Stud Book are registered 996 horses with 442 stallions and 554 mares.
The only criteria taken into account for the selection was that the percentage of foreign blood. Thereby, Stud Book is composed of two parts:
The main portion 297 stallions and 468 mares are enrolled horses with more than 1 / 8th of foreign blood.
Second part: 46 stallions and 86 mares are registered horses with more than 1 / 8th and less than 1/2 share of other blood.
Presentation in the Stud Book: by name and date of birth, there is the color of the dress, the names of the parents and the 5 following measurements:
Height at the withers
Chest deep (the difference between the height at the withers and the height from floor to chest)
body length (from the point of shoulder to al tip of the ischium)
Circumference of the body girth.
Tour the barrel of a prior.